The African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle that toppled apartheid in 1994 and has ruled South Africa ever since, remaining the most popular party despite a series of scandals.
Here are 10 key dates in the history of the party formed more than 100 years ago.
The South African Native National Congress was founded in 1912 in response to discrimination against blacks in the then-Union of South Africa, established two years earlier through the merger of white-run colonies and territories.
The movement changed its name to ANC in 1923.
After the white-minority National Party government institutionalised the apartheid system in 1948, the ANC organised its first mass “Defiance Campaign” in 1952.
Tens of thousands of blacks broke curfews, burned their “passbook” identity documents which were obligatory to carry, and entered whites-only areas at the risk of going to jail.